Martin Luther was a professor, author, hymnwriter, German priest, and theologian. According to Wikipedia, “A former Augustinian friar, he is best known as the seminal figure in the Protestant Reformation and the namesake of Lutheranism. Luther was ordained to the priesthood in 1507.”

\Martin Luther wrote On the Freedom of a Christian in the year 1520. According to Wikipedia, “On the Freedom of a Christian, sometimes also called “A Treatise on Christian Liberty”, was the third of Martin Luther’s major reforming treatises of 1520″. The three main points of this treatise are “bondage”, “freedom”, and “love”.

Bondage: God created use in his own image, and so therefore we are perfect, right? Wrong! We are slaves to sin, in bondage to sin. This results in the breakdown of communities, and in evil. When we do not believe in the Bible, or Jesus dying for us, then we tend to try to find other ways to earn Gods love and get our way into Heaven. When people think “I want to get this” or “I want to do that”, they think that they will be happy, but in in doing this, they risk turning others into objects meant to serve their needs. Basically, the bondage to sin results in terrible things.

Freedom: The good news is that God’s response to sin is healing and reconciliation and not punishment. Our sin is Christ’s, and Christ’s “goodness” is our “goodness”. This is called the “happy exchange” by Luther.

Love: According to Living Lutheran, “Love begets love. It’s impossible for true faith not to yield abundant fruits of love because it is by faith that we awaken to God’s abundant love for us in Christ—and love wants to love…. Love is the fruit of faith. Love is the mark of the true Christian.”

Explain Calvin’s main points in the selection you read from the Institutes of the Christian Religion. How does Calvin answer those who say predestination makes God into a being who dispenses justice unequally? According to Wikipedia, “John Calvin was a French theologian, pastor and reformer in Geneva during the Protestant Reformation.” He wrote the book the Institutes of the Christian Religion. According to Wikipedia, “Institutes of the Christian Religion is John Calvin’s seminal work of systematic theology. Regarded as one of the most influential works of Protestant theology, it was published in Latin in 1536 and in his native French language in 1541, with the definitive editions appearing in 1559 and in 1560.”

Basically Calvin’s main points on this book is salvation of man through faith alone, and nothing else. Also, for the sake of consistency and maintaining that God judges indiscriminately, he believed that God chose from the beginning who will go to Heaven, and who will go to Hell.

What is the truth of the matter regarding the claim that people in the Middle Ages thought the earth was flat? The myth that medieval people thought that the Earth was flat and believed that going to far out at sea would result in falling off of the edge of the world is false. While Columbus was preparing to make his voyage across the world, you may have heard that he faced opposition because of people believing that the earth was flat and that he would fall of the edge. This is only partly true. Yes, he did face opposition, but not because people thought that the earth was flat (people knew that the earth was round), but rather that people thought that the earth was very large and Columbus would run out of supplies before he could make it around to Asia.

What do you think is the central point of the essay you read by Mario Vargas Llosa? In this essay, he recounts the events that lead to conquering of natives of the ‘New World’. The natives were actually an amazing people. They were captured by ridiculously small armies. How? Well, the natives have never seen firearms or bullets before. And they also have never seen horses before, so they must have thought that the gods were attacking them. But still, this was not the reason for their capture. Once the guys in charge on the native’s side were captured, the natives just stopped fighting. The native population decreased because of because of war, diseases, and slavery, from 25 million in 1492 to 730,000 in 1620.

#1: Argon and Castile brought together. In the year 1469, Ferdinand, heir to the throne of Argon, marries Isabella, heiress to the throne of Castile. Ten years later, the two Crowns are united and a strong government is formed.

#2: Conquest of Granada brings reconquista to an end. Ferdinand and Isabella wanted to revive the reconquista. When a Moorish outpost called Granada refused to pay tribute to Spain, Ferdinand and Isabella demanded that Granada resume to pay tribute. However, when Granada refused many number of times, Spain decides to take it over in the year 1481. Many settlements outside Granada fall to the Spanish, but Granada holds on. The Siege of Granada begins in 1491. Over some time, Granada finally capitulates and the “war” is over.

#3: Spanish Inquisition. The reason for the Spanish Inquisition was to maintain Catholicism inside the two kingdoms of Argon and Castile, but they did this through brutal methods. There were a lot of Jews in Spain, but Spain forced the Jews to do things that the Jews did not want to do. Spain was mainly trying to convert the Jews to Catholicism. For example, forced baptisms, forced to sit in a Christian service, etc. Over time, there was a Jewish Massacre that happened and a lot of people died. Eventually, all non-converted Jews were to leave Spain. A lot of Jews had to make their way to many surrounding territories. It was also the same for Arabs.

According to Wikipedia, “The First Italian War, sometimes referred to as the Italian War of 1494 or Charles VIII’s Italian War, was the opening phase of the Italian Wars.” The members of the Italian War were Charles VIII of France and Milanese aid against the Holy Roman Empire, Spain, and an alliance of Italian powers known as the League of Venice lead by Pope Alexander VI.

The war began when Charles VIII of France was encouraged to invade Italy while using the Angevin claim to the throne of Naples as a pretext. Charles VIII began conquering city after city leaving all of the other Italian states shocked at these attacks. Pope Alexander VI finally had enough of this and formed the League of Venice. Together, the League of Venice defeated France in the Battle of Fornovo and drew them back. Charles VIII retreated back to France and died before he could launch another attack on the Italian states.

The three key artists of the High Renaissance are Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, and Raphael.

Leonardo Da Vinci: He was an Italian polymath of the High Renaissance. He was also a painter, draughtsman, engineer, scientist, theorist, sculptor, and architect. His greatest masterpiece is the Mona Lisa.

Michelangelo: He was of the High Renaissance. He was also an Italian sculptor, painter, architect and poet. His greatest masterpiece is The Statue of David.

Raphael: He was from the High Renaissance. He was an Italian painter and architect. His greatest masterpiece was The School of Athens.

In this essay, I will tell you about three extremely famous early Renaissance artists and one of their masterpieces.

First, theirs’s Leonardo Da Vinci. He lived from 1452-1519, and he was from Italy. One of his most famous paintings (and I think that you know this one), is the Mona Lisa from 1517.

Second is Tintoretto. He lived from 1518-1594, and he was from Italy. His masterpiece is titled The Last Supper depicting Jesus having the Last Supper with his disciples.

Third is Raphael. He lived from 1483-1520, and he was from Italy. His masterpiece is titled The School of Athens from 1511.

The Renaissance (meaning rebirth) was a time of economic rebirth after the Middle Ages. The Renaissance promoted the rediscovery of art, literature, and classical philosophy. In this essay, I will tell you about five main key ideas of the Renaissance.

Classicism. During the Renaissance, there was a sudden interest for classical works. It also translated heavily into Renaissance architecture. They used symmetry, proportion, and geometry because they believed that it was beautiful to have in a public sphere.

Humanism. The study of Humanism was very common then. Humanism put humans at the center of his own universe.

Individualism. This is an idea that the individual is capable of many great things and should aspire to be well-rounded and skillful in many disciplines.

Secularism. This was an idea that you should make your life on Earth as comfortable and special as you possibly can.

Scepticism. This encouraged Renaissance thinkers to ask questions, ponder, consider, and experiment.

In what ways does Petrarch embody the spirit of the Renaissance? Petrarch is considered the father of humanism. According to Lumen, “Petrarch’s rediscovery of Cicero’s letters is often credited for initiating the 14th-century Renaissance. Petrarch is often considered the founder of Humanism. Petrarch’s sonnets were admired and imitated throughout Europe during the Renaissance and became a model for lyrical poetry.”

Who was John Wyclif? There is more than one way to spell Wyclif. Some others are Wycliffe, Wicliffe, Wiclif, and Wycliff. According to Britannica, John Wyclif was an “English theologian, philosopher, church reformer, and promoter of the first complete translation of the Bible into English. He was one of the forerunners of the Protestant Reformation.

What was the Great Western Schism, and how was it resolved? The Great Western Schism lasted from 1378-1417. It was a split within the Roman Catholic Church. It was during this time that three men claimed to be the true pope simultaneously. This schism was finally put to an end by the Council of Constance which lasted from 1414-1418.

According to History, “The Black Death was a devastating global epidemic of bubonic plague that struck Europe and Asia in the mid-1300s.” It was said that the plague was brought to Europe by rats on ships. Hitchhikers. The plague grew in Europe killing one third of Europe’s population over the next five years.

The aftermath of the Black Death was devastating to Europe. Trade was terrible and suffering, wars were abandoned for a time, and devastated families throughout the continent. People everywhere were suffering because of this plague.

The Black Death is still around today, but it is not as widespread as it once was and we have better was to treat it.

The Holy Roman Empire lasted from the year 800, to the year 1806, nearly 10 decades! According to Wikipedia, “Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. The history of the papacy from 1046 to 1216 was marked by conflict between popes and the Holy Roman Emperor, most prominently the Investiture Controversy, a dispute over who— pope or emperor— could appoint bishops within the Empire.” So one of the main reasons for the conflicts between the emperors and the popes was an argument over who could appoint bishops within the Empire, and who couldn’t. So technically, it was an issue over who had the power and authority to appoint bishops within the Empire (that stuff can tear people apart).