According to History, “The Black Death was a devastating global epidemic of bubonic plague that struck Europe and Asia in the mid-1300s.” It was said that the plague was brought to Europe by rats on ships. Hitchhikers. The plague grew in Europe killing one third of Europe’s population over the next five years.

The aftermath of the Black Death was devastating to Europe. Trade was terrible and suffering, wars were abandoned for a time, and devastated families throughout the continent. People everywhere were suffering because of this plague.

The Black Death is still around today, but it is not as widespread as it once was and we have better was to treat it.

The Holy Roman Empire lasted from the year 800, to the year 1806, nearly 10 decades! According to Wikipedia, “Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. The history of the papacy from 1046 to 1216 was marked by conflict between popes and the Holy Roman Emperor, most prominently the Investiture Controversy, a dispute over who— pope or emperor— could appoint bishops within the Empire.” So one of the main reasons for the conflicts between the emperors and the popes was an argument over who could appoint bishops within the Empire, and who couldn’t. So technically, it was an issue over who had the power and authority to appoint bishops within the Empire (that stuff can tear people apart).

Major innovations of the Gothic cathedral. According to, “The two main structural innovations of Gothic architecture were pointed arches and ogival or  (Bony 1983).” A pointed arch is an arch were the crown of the arch is pointed upward. According to, “Pointed arches were used to direct weight onto load-bearing columns at a sharp angle, thus allowing for much taller vaulted ceilings.” The ribbed vaulting, according to wikipedia, is “an architectural feature for covering a wide space, such as a church nave, composed of a framework of crossed or diagonal arched ribs.” According to, “A ribbed vault is an arched form created by the intersection of two or three barrel vaults used to support the weight of walls or a ceiling or roof.

The significance of the rise of the medieval towns. There were many reasons for the growth of medieval towns. Some of them are the improvement in agriculture, and the revival of trade. Many sellers of products and goods became residents of the towns. Also, towns started to govern themselves with their own government. The rulers of towns were usually just a mayor and a town council.