The divine attributes. According to Cambridge.org, “The Divine Attributes explores the traditional theistic concept of God as the most perfect being possible.” The Divine Attributes are personhood, transcendence, immanence, omnipresence, omniscience, omnipotence, perfect goodness, unity, simplicity and necessity. According to Wikipedia, “The attributes of God are specific characteristics of God discussed in Christian theology. Christians are not monolithic in their understanding of God’s attributes.”

The just-war theory. According to Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, “Just war theory deals with the justification of how and why wars are fought… The principles of the justice of war are commonly held to be: having just cause, being a last resort, being declared by a proper authority, possessing right intention, having a reasonable chance of success, and the end being proportional to the means used.” So the just-war theory justifies why and how wars were fought, or at least deals with it.

According to Wikipedia, “Augustine of Hippo, also known as Saint Augustine, was a theologian and philosopher of Berber origin and the bishop of Hippo Regius in Numidia, Roman North Africa.” He was born on November 13, 345 AD in Thagaste, and died on August 29, 430 AD in the Ruins of Hippo, Annaba, Algeria. He was a very important person during his time. He was regarded as very important by people of his time because he was considered a saint, hence the name, Saint Augustine. According to the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, “Augustine was perhaps the greatest Christian philosopher of Antiquity and certainly the one who exerted the deepest and most lasting influence. He is a saint of the Catholic Church, and his authority in theological matters was universally accepted in the Latin Middle Ages and remained, in the Western Christian tradition, virtually uncontested till the nineteenth century.

Augustine wrote a rule on common life for lay Christians and how they are supposed to live their life in the year 397. He also wrote many other messages to the Christians. He believed that the purpose of righteous men was to represent God in everything they think, say, and do, and to look forward towards the Kingdom of Heaven in the hope that one day you might enter into it. He says the the world were are in right now is falling apart into chaos and destruction, so we must look forward to the City of God.

He also tells us not to be afraid of those who want to take our body, but not our soul. Instead, we should be afraid of the one who can take away the body and the soul, and that “person” is God. There is a Bible verse that talks about this. Matthew 10:28 says: “And fear not them which kill the body, but are not able to kill the soul: but rather fear him which is able to destroy both soul and body in hell.” Another verse is Proverbs 1:7, which says: “The fear of the Lord is the beginning of knowledge: but fools despise wisdom and instruction.”

In all of his writings, St. Augustine points Christians in the direction of the city of the City of God. He says that this world that we are living in today is falling apart and is ruled by Satan and the enemy. We have nothing on this earth. We must look forward to the City of God where not even sin can exist. That is what we must look forward to. But, until we can reach the City of God, we must come closer to God, learn about him, listen to the words of the Bible, etc. However, not everyone can enter the City of God. If you want to enter the City of God, you must believe in Jesus and in everything that he has done for you, and you must follow him by reading the Bible, going to Church, etc. You must also do other things to enter the City of God, but I have said enough.

Keep trying to follow Jesus.

A brief overview of the life and work of Thomas Aquinas. St. Thomas Aquinas was a very influential philosopher, theologian, priest, and Italian Dominican Friar. He was also the number one greatest of the Scholastic Philosophers. He wrote many books and works in his life. According to Google, “His best-known works are the Disputed Questions on Truth (1256–1259), the Summa contra Gentiles (1259–1265), and the unfinished but massively influential Summa Theologica, or Summa Theologiae (1265–1274). His commentaries on Scripture and on Aristotle also form an important part of his body of work.

What kinds of developments occurred during the renaissance of the twelfth century? According to Wikipedia, “The epoch of the Crusades, of the rise of towns, and of the earliest bureaucratic states of the West, it saw the culmination of Romanesque art and the beginnings of Gothic; the emergence of the vernacular literatures; the revival of the Latin classics and of Latin poetry and Roman law; the recovery of Greek science, …” So, a lot of things happened. But they were all very important.

What was Scholastic philosophy? According to Wikipedia, “Scholasticism is a method of learning more than a philosophy or a theology, since it places a strong emphasis on dialectical reasoning to extend knowledge by inference and to resolve contradictions.” So it’s a type of way to learn more things that than a philosophy.

What was the significance of the Magna Carta? According to Independent, “Magna Carta, which means ‘The Great Charter’, is one of the most important documents in history as it established the principle that everyone is subject to the law, even the king, and guarantees the rights of individuals, the right to justice and the right to a fair trial.” Some consider the Magna Carta to be significant because it subjects the king to the same rules as the citizens. So the king and citizens of the kingdom follow the same rules. It was also the very first ever step that took place in England towards establishing something called parliamentary democracy.

What was the significance of King Philip IV of France? According to Wikipedia, “Philip IV, called Philip the Fair, was King of France from 1285 to 1314. By virtue of his marriage with Joan I of Navarre, he was also King of Navarre as Philip I from 1284 to 1305, as well as Count of Champagne.” It is said that his reign was one of the most important in medieval history. Why? Well, because he challenged traditional power of the office or authority of the Pope of France, and was successful.

Describe the mendicant orders of the thirteenth century. According to Cambridge.org, “Four main mendicant orders, with diverse geographical and ideological origins, became influential in Britain: the Franciscans (Friars Minor), the Dominicans (Friars Preacher, or Black Friars), the Augustinian (Austin) Friars, and the Carmelites (the White Friars).” The Franciscans are a group of mendicant Christian religious orders that are all related. They are primarily in the Catholic Church. The Dominicans, also known as the Order of Preachers, was founded in Toulouse, France, by Saint Dominic and is an order of the Catholic Church. The Augustans were consecrated religious and a Latin Rite Order. The Carmelites, also known as the Order of the Brothers of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Mount Carmel, is a Roman Catholic mendicant religious order for both men as well as women.

According to Indeed, “Business skills are skills that help people understand the consumer and organizational behavior and use this information to promote the success of the company. Business skills are often considered soft skills and may include team management, leadership and communication skills“. So, business skills are really important. These skills can help you build a business, build a website, sell things, make money, etc.

I already have some business skills. I do landscaping (snow shoveling, leaf raking, lawn mowing, etc.) for my local neighborhood. One year, I did snow shoveling for three houses, and I got one hundred and seventy-five dollars out of it. The way I got the word around that I was doing snow shoveling is my dad and I made flyers and passed them around our neighborhood.

Business skills can help you find and create a business that suits you and make a lot of money. It can also help you if you learn it at a young age so you can get better over the years at creating a business.

My favorite business is creating a website, like this blog, that can help people. I am thinking of building a website that I can get money from. Like a website that I can sell stuff on. I also like graphics design. It is also very important to website builders.

Business skills are essential skills that every business developer needs to know. Business skills are also very important to those who want to create a business.

The doctrine of hell was, according to theconversation.com, “In traditional Christian doctrine, hell was conceived as a place, generally beneath the earth, where the wicked would be punished for eternity. There would be both psychological torment – at our knowing we had lost the opportunity for salvation – and physical ones inflicted by the Devil and his demons.” Now, hell is a very real place and people can go there if they die, but it is not a place that you would like to go to. It is full of death, destruction, calamity, and so  much more. That is why Christians take hell very, very seriously.

The martyrs were Christians who died for there beliefs in Jesus Christ, God, and Christianity. According to merriam-webster.com, the definition of martyr is “a person who voluntarily suffers death as the penalty of witnessing to and refusing to renounce a religion”. So, martyrs are really people who died because of their belief in a religion. Many martyrs tried teaching other people about their religion and died because of it. Their were even martyrs in the Bible. Ten of the twelve disciples of Jesus Christ were martyrs. So martyrs were even that far back in history, and maybe even farther back than that!

How important was the doctrine of hell to the martyrs? It was pretty serious. The Christian martyrs taught people about Jesus, and were killed because of it. Some were even Christians and did not try to preach Christianity to other people, and they were martyred. After a Christian has been caught to be executed, he/she is given one chance to save themselves. The way they do that is they have to deny Jesus. If they do, they will be spared. If they do not, they will die. Some are not even given this chance. Some are just killed without being brought to the court to be trialed. They are just killed then and there. Some were killed in terrible, horrifying ways. Some were stoned to death, crucified, burned alive, beheaded, and much more. It was just horrifying. If you were a martyr, and you were given the choice to deny Jesus and live, or to not do so and die, which one would you chose?

The martyrs that died that were given the choice to deny Jesus did not deny Jesus because they knew that if they denied Jesus, they would have to answer to Jesus himself for it and probably go to hell, so they chose death on earth and everlasting life in heaven over limited life on earth and everlasting death in hell. What choice would you make?

The martyrs were people who died for their belief in God and His Son, Jesus Christ. They have helped influence people throughout history and are probably still doing it. Martyrs are very influential people. Some people even wish that they die by being martyred! Here is my final question. If you were to die by martyrdom or by old age, which would you chose?

What are some common misconceptions about the Crusades, and why are they incorrect? One common misconception about the crusades is that Christians joined the crusades because of their lust for money and wealth. However, we now know this is not true. People actually sold stuff in order to go crusading.

Another misconception is what we know as the “second-sons” theory. You see, when a father dies, he leaves all his land and estate to his oldest son, so the second oldest was left with nothing. So it was believed that the second oldest sons went on crusades to win land. However, it was the oldest sons that went on crusades.

The events of the Fourth Crusade. The beginning the fourth crusade was the preparations to start the crusade and the departure to Zara to capture it. They were successful. After this they are summoned to Alexis and had a meeting with King Philip. The king made a proposition. Alexis arrived later and they had some difficulties with him. After that they sacked Constantinople and stole priceless Christian artifacts.

Compare Paul’s concept of God’s sovereignty in Romans 9:1-23 with Justin’s concept of God’s sovereignty in Chapter XLIII: RESPONSIBILITY ASSERTED. Romans 9:1-23 says: “

I speak the truth in Christ—I am not lying, my conscience confirms it through the Holy Spirit— I have great sorrow and unceasing anguish in my heart. For I could wish that I myself were cursed and cut off from Christ for the sake of my people, those of my own race, the people of Israel. Theirs is the adoption to sonship; theirs the divine glory, the covenants, the receiving of the law, the temple worship and the promises. Theirs are the patriarchs, and from them is traced the human ancestry of the Messiah, who is God over all, forever praised!a] Amen.

It is not as though God’s word had failed. For not all who are descended from Israel are Israel. Nor because they are his descendants are they all Abraham’s children. On the contrary, “It is through Isaac that your offspring will be reckoned.”b] In other words, it is not the children by physical descent who are God’s children, but it is the children of the promise who are regarded as Abraham’s offspring. For this was how the promise was stated: “At the appointed time I will return, and Sarah will have a son.”c]

10 Not only that, but Rebekah’s children were conceived at the same time by our father Isaac. 11 Yet, before the twins were born or had done anything good or bad—in order that God’s purpose in election might stand: 12 not by works but by him who calls—she was told, “The older will serve the younger.”d] 13 Just as it is written: “Jacob I loved, but Esau I hated.”e]

14 What then shall we say? Is God unjust? Not at all! 15 For he says to Moses,

“I will have mercy on whom I have mercy,
    and I will have compassion on whom I have compassion.”f]

16 It does not, therefore, depend on human desire or effort, but on God’s mercy. 17 For Scripture says to Pharaoh: “I raised you up for this very purpose, that I might display my power in you and that my name might be proclaimed in all the earth.”g] 18 Therefore God has mercy on whom he wants to have mercy, and he hardens whom he wants to harden.

19 One of you will say to me: “Then why does God still blame us? For who is able to resist his will?” 20 But who are you, a human being, to talk back to God? “Shall what is formed say to the one who formed it, ‘Why did you make me like this?’”h] 21 Does not the potter have the right to make out of the same lump of clay some pottery for special purposes and some for common use?

22 What if God, although choosing to show his wrath and make his power known, bore with great patience the objects of his wrath—prepared for destruction? 23 What if he did this to make the riches of his glory known to the objects of his mercy, whom he prepared in advance for glory—

In this Bible reference, Paul makes it clear that God is completely sovereign, the supreme ruler of all. He said that God is completely sovereign and the Son and Father are one. In Justin Martyr’s Apology, he also states that God is supreme ruler, but He also delegates sovereignty to His Son and man. Really, they both believe God to be supreme ruler, but they also differed in the fact of God’s choices. Paul believed that God’s predestination were independent of man’s choices. But Justin Martyr believed that God’s predestination were dependent of man’s choices. They both knew that God was the supreme ruler, but they differed in their beliefs of God’s predestination.

What is an indulgence? According to Wikipedia, “In the teaching of the Catholic Church, an indulgence is ‘a way to reduce the amount of punishment one has to undergo for sins'”. So indulgence was used in the Catholic church and are still part of the Catholic tradition. Basically, it is something the Catholics sell to people to “forgive” them of their sins. It is sort of like a card that you get that means that you do not go to hell. It could also mean a ticket that gets you into heaven.

What are the sacraments? According to Wikipedia, “There are seven sacraments of the Catholic Church, which according to Catholic theology were instituted by Jesus and entrusted to the Church. Sacraments are visible rites seen as signs and efficacious channels of the grace of God to all those who receive them with the proper disposition”. The seven sacraments are Confirmation, Anointing of the sick, Matrimony, Eucharist, Reconciliation, Baptism, and Holy Orders. Some people believe that the sacraments are rituals that are used to teach and strengthen people.

What was the Great Schism? What factors brought it on? According to Britannica, “East-West Schism, also called Schism of 1054, event that precipitated the final separation between the Eastern Christian churches (led by the patriarch of Constantinople, Michael Cerularius) and the Western church (led by Pope Leo IX)”. According to the National Geographic Society, “The Great Schism came about due to a complex mix of religious disagreements and political conflicts”. So the Great Schism was a series of religious disagreements and political conflicts between the Eastern Christian churches and the Western church.

The ethical behavior of the Greek/Roman god Zeus was one of wrath and punishment. The Greeks/Romans tried their best to follow the correct rituals and sacrifices in order to try to avoid the wrath of Zeus and to avoid the punishment that comes along with it, but there was no assurance that Zeus would not just start disliking them and start putting negative sanctions on them. And his wrath was not merciful. Zeus was a ruthless guy. So Zeus was not the kind of guy that you would want to be friends with. I’m really sure that the Greeks/Romans thought so too. In many concepts when there were wars going on the gods just took sides and used their supernatural godly powers to help their side win the battle. An example of this is the Trojan War. In this war the gods took sides and tried to help their side win the war. They use humans as their “toys” or “play-things”. In Roman mythology, Jove/Jupiter is Zeus but a Roman god (the Romans get some of their mythology from the Greeks, for example, they took the Greek gods, but renamed them so it would seem that the Romans made up their own gods) and he takes this “play-thing” very far, maybe even to far. It is said that he finds random innocent people and does what is necessary to do to hide his doings from his suspicious and very jealous wife. If you did something to offend the gods or you did something that they just did  not like they were sure to punish you.

Jesus on the other hand explains that because we are sinners we can not enter the kingdom of heaven. But God sent his one and only Son to die for us and be the savior of the world. That way that if we believe in Jesus and that he came to save us and that he is God’s Son, we can have eternal life.

For the wages of sin is death, but the gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord. Romans 6:23

But God demonstrates his own love for us in this: While we were still sinners, Christ died for us. Romans 5:8

For God so loved the world that he gave his one and only Son, that whoever believes in him shall not perish but have eternal life. John 3:16

Believe in the Lord Jesus, and you will be saved Acts 16:31

These four verses are four of my favorite verses and are very important. They explain all that I just said. Jesus taught us that God is omnipotent (all powerful) and omniscient (all knowing). His power is unlimited. He can create out of nothing and he knows past present and future all at the same time. He is also perfectly good. There is no evil in him at all whatsoever. Because of this we can trust him fully. He never turns his back on us and he never leaves nor forsakes us.

Be strong and courageous. Do not be afraid or terrified because of them, for the Lord your God goes with you; he will never leave you nor forsake you. Deuteronomy 31:6