What was the Kulturkampf? According to Wikipedia, the Kulturampf was a “fierce conflict that took place from 1872 to 1878 between the Catholic Church led by Pope Pius IX and the government of Prussia led by Otto von Bismarck.” The main issues of this conflict were clerical control of education and ecclesiastical appointments. It began in 1871 and ended in 1887, and took place in Prussia.

What arguments did Gladstone make in favor of Home Rule for Ireland? According to Weebly, “Gladstone believed that Home Rule, no matter how radical or progressive it seemed, was the only means of avoiding a catastrophe between Ireland and Britain.” He worked very hard to establish this, but it failed and was rejected.