According to Wikipedia, “The Congress of Vienna of 1814–1815 was a series of international diplomatic meetings to discuss and agree upon a possible new layout of the European political and constitutional order after the downfall of the French Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte.” Russia, Great Britain, France, Austria and Prussia (the five great powers) were the nations that participated in the Congress of Vienna, and it did prove to be relatively stable. This meeting between these five powers was to discuss and arrange a possible new layout of the political and constitutional order in Europe after the fall of Napoleon Bonaparte.

According to Wikipedia, “The Carlsbad Decrees were a set of reactionary restrictions introduced in the states of the German Confederation by resolution of the Bundesversammlung on 20 September 1819 after a conference held in the spa town of Carlsbad, Austrian Empire.” So, these decrees were introduced in Germany in the year 1819. According to Deutscher Bundestag, “The Carlsbad Decrees, adopted in 1819 at the instigation of Austria’s foreign minister, Klemens von Metternich, established a police-state regime of surveillance and repression, designed to keep a tight lid on any opposition activity.” The main purpose of the Carlsbad Decrees was to keep a tight lid on any opposition activity.

What was compulsory state education? According to Wikipedia, “Compulsory education refers to a period of education that is required of all people and is imposed by the government. This education may take place at a registered school or at other places. Compulsory school attendance or compulsory schooling means that parents are obliged to send their children to a certain school.” The first country to do compulsory state education was Germany in the year 1592, followed by most of the world a few years later.